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The possibilities in the era of Ethernet Square 2.0.

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DapperLabs hosted the last issue of “Ethernet Square 2.0 Series”. AMA, invited Michael Yuan, chief scientist of CyberMiles, Wang Dong, founder of Road Printing Foundation, Guo Yu, founder of Amby Laboratories, and Xia Fubiao, senior researcher of PlatON Innovation Research Institute, to the live broadcast room of “Golden Relativity” to talk about N possibilities of the ethernet 2.0 era.

During the live broadcast, four guests shared their views on the multi-client, beacon chain staking, rollup and other technologies adopted by Ethernet Fang, and provided a solution case of Ethernet Fang combined with their own research, and shared the possibility of forming other weak financial applications.

The following are the details of the LVB:

Wang Yukun: which of the stateless ethernet, multi-client, beacon chain staking, rollup and other technologies currently adopted by Yitai Fang impresses you most and thinks it has the most application value? Is the technical processing idea of Yitaifang suitable for other cryptocurrency networks? For example, rollup, casper ffg, and so on.

Michael: 2.0 is a cross-chain ecology of PoS. Compared with other PoS systems, its major innovation is that its beacon chain should support at least tens of thousands of verifier nodes. The system randomly selects a combination of verifiers to form an application subchain. Tai Fong 2.0 must have enough people to go to stake to succeed (the standard is 32 ETH, is now a good opportunity to participate in the early stage). Because the number of verifiers must be large, the data of the verifier verification subchain can be selected safely and randomly. Although it is a cross-chain idea, but the use of a large number of nodes and a large number of verifiers, only Yi Tai Fong is the only one, Polkadot and Cosmos are not this method. Therefore, the technology used by Etay Fong to manage verifiers is innovative and should not be used in other chains, which are far from this scale. However, with the progress of development, such as EWASM virtual machine and Solidity intelligent contract, these technologies can be widely used in other encrypted networks. After all, throughout the whole block chain world, the mode of application development is based on the idea of Etay Square.

Xia Fubiao: ETH2.0 is a very grand new network, and these new technologies are the most powerful driving force for the continuous evolution of ethernet. I come from cryptography and am very interested in the combination of block chain and cryptography. From a technical point of view, the most profound of these technologies is rollup, especially the recently popular ZK rollup, which fully embodies a basic idea of applying cryptography to solve blockchain problems. To put it simply, ZK rollup puts the operations such as the packaging block of the transaction under the chain, while the verification work is placed on the chain, and uses a zero-knowledge proof to ensure that the whole set of connected processing flow is executed correctly, and the transaction data can also be stored on the chain, thus solving the worry of data availability. So we see that Zk rollup can solve some scalability problems well, and even ZK rollup can combine privacy with scalability, so we see the emergence of more interesting technology applications such as ZK ZK rollup.

And recently an interesting proposal in the community is to use a new cryptographic technology (polynomial commitment) instead of the traditional merkle tree for state data storage. If this technology is further verified to be feasible, then some data storage in stateless clients can be reduced to almost zero, which is also a great technical idea. Of course, it takes a lot of effort to implement this new storage structure, both algorithmic and engineering.

In fact, most projects, especially the public chain project, can learn from the idea of this technical community to feed the main network team. after all, there is no good community foundation that can not play with complex block chains. but whether it can be done to the same extent as the Yitaifang technology community is actually a very arduous task and a long way to go.

Wang Dong: I think the terms mentioned in the question may not belong to the same category, and the problem I want to solve does not seem to be at the same level, so it is impossible to make a comparison together. Of course, road printing is most familiar with rollup technology, and I firmly believe that rollup is one of the most promising directions for blockchain expansion, in which zkRollup has many advantages and is also the most promising in the industry, because zkRollup does not introduce new consensus and will not reduce security; it does not rely on game games, and there is no game time cost problem.

Rollup, including zkRollup, is a universal and pluggable expansion scheme. ZkRollup as long as the underlying blockchain supports specific elliptic curve writing intelligent contracts, other public chains should actually benefit from the technological advances of ethernet.

Guo Yu: personally, I am very optimistic about the DEX system and zkRollup technology of road printing. We also had the honor to conduct an in-depth security audit of the intelligent contract and zero-knowledge proof circuit code of the road print, which took nearly 4 months.

ZkRollup is a general blockchain expansion architecture, which can be transplanted to other common chains or blockchain platforms, and the requirements for the underlying platform are not high. As long as the underlying platform of the blockchain can support the relevant cryptographic primitives, mainly zero-knowledge proof primitives, then it can support zkRollup.

Zkrollup technology has basically been successfully tested, and there is still a lot of room for optimization, such as the optimization of hash algorithm, using a new zero-knowledge proof scheme, such as plonk,fractal. There is also a zero-knowledge proof scheme without FFT, which is conducive to the introduction of ASIC hardware acceleration to effectively reduce the performance overhead of zkrollup certification. At present, there are still many technical problems in zkrollup, which deserve to be solved by other public chain teams. I think there is no competition between public chains, but we need to learn from each other to accelerate the development of blockchain technology.

In addition, I think that the stateless client protocol proposed by Ethernet Fong may be the most subversive new architecture in the future. Block chain verification nodes no longer need to store blocks, and achieve transaction verification and packaging through zero-knowledge proof. This will open up a wider range of imagination. At present, the relevant theory of this technology is still in the process of fast iteration, and I believe that this technology can be applied in some pilot scenarios soon. Stateless client is also a general technology, which can be transplanted to other public chains, but it may be more difficult to transplant than zkRollup, which requires more scientific research investment and community construction.

Wang Yukun: please provide us with an example of a solution combined with Ethernet Square from the perspective of your own project research and application?

Michael: our team focuses on blockchain development tools, mainly focusing on the ethernet ecosystem to build products, mainly WebAssembly-based virtual machine SSVM, compiler SOLL, and IDE development tools. At the same time, I was also working as the chief scientist of CyberMiles, an e-commerce chain. At that time, I mainly wanted to solve the performance problem of Ethernet Fong, so according to the needs of e-commerce, we made some optimizations to optimize the EVM virtual machine. From our point of view, in addition to PoS Sharding, ethernet, the major change in 2.0 is the use of WebAssembly virtual machines and support for more programming languages to write smart contracts.

We have a point of view that the architecture of the blockchain is the ultimate serverless architecture: we submit the intelligent contract to the blockchain platform, and the distributed nodes execute the intelligent contract. The calculation is based on the bytecode operation code and the storage space required by the function. Here, we can think of smart contracts as functions, blockchains as common cloud vendors, and virtual machines as containers, which are matched with serverless architectures.

Then when it comes to the application of ETH 2.0, it is the smart contract. One is that DeFi, has developed well now, and the other is the original intention of the design of Etay Fong: the world computer, and more broadly, cloud computing. It is no accident that serverless architecture is currently the hottest direction in cloud computing, an industry with hundreds of times more employees than blockchain.

What we are doing is that providing Serverless services on WebAssembly virtual machines is more secure and billing will be as accurate as gas charging. This is not strictly “blockchain”, but uses the technology of blockchain generation, just like Facebook issued Libra, the people’s Bank of China issued digital RMB, but none of them exist, just using the technology of blockchain generation.

Xia Fubiao: PlatON is honored to be invited by the Ethernet Fong Foundation to participate in the design and engineering implementation of PoC’s secure multi-party algorithm (MPC). Currently, PlatON’s algorithm team has completed the first phase of code implementation and testing, and GitHu is open source. The link is as follows:

Https://github.com/PlatONnetwork/proof_of_custody.

Let me briefly introduce PoC in the form of MPC. We know that the design of ETH2 is based on a structure in which multiple parallel shard chains are connected by a beacon chain, each of which is relatively independent and is blocked by a committee composed of some verifiers. Because these verifiers are independent of each other, there are bound to be data availability problems in collaborative operation.

To put it simply, the problem of data availability is generally like this: in an ETH2 verifier network, a light node usually does not download all the chunk data due to machine performance or other business reasons, but usually connects a full node to download lightweight chunks, and the validity of the chunk is recognized after verification. The whole node, which provides services for the light node, has the obligation to ensure that the light node will not be deceived.

The current practice is that once the whole node finds that there is an illegal transaction in a block, it will generate a “fraud certificate” based on the transaction data and status information, which is very light and easy to verify. in this way, the mechanism restrains the possibility of bad nodes constructing double flowers, bifurcations and so on.

But a key problem here is that block data is needed to generate this fraud certificate. If the whole node cannot get the block data, there is no way to generate this proof, and it will be in a dilemma: it is impossible to get the data to generate a fraud certificate, so it is impossible to determine whether the block has malicious transactions in the end, and the light node cannot synchronize and recognize the block. To solve this problem, ETH2 proposes a PoC solution, that is, when a verifier node is required to submit a block, it needs to be accompanied by a “proof of ownership of the data”, that is, proof of custody (PoC). In order to prevent a single point of failure and reduce the delegated cost of the verifier, the design goal of PoC includes compatibility with MPC. In addition, through MPC, you can establish a delegate pool without trust, and it is possible to derive a new Staking business model based on this.

Wang Dong: at the beginning, Luyin was a decentralized agreement for spot transactions. At present, the clearer positioning is based on zkRollup, focusing on the two-tier expansion agreement of payment and transaction. Our goal is to make payments and transactions as secure as Ethernet Square, while significantly reducing costs (1/1000) and increasing overall throughput (a thousand times). For example, it takes only a few hundred yuan to clear 1 million transactions and 1 million payments (or P2P transfers) for only a few hundred yuan.

In the past, people are not optimistic about decentralized exchanges, saying that the user experience is very poor, but in fact, the user experience is step by step through a variety of technical problems solved, and combined with the improvement of interaction to a better stage. I believe that by using the technology and arrangement of road printing, you will soon know that the experience of a decentralized exchange is better than that of a centralized exchange; the experience of decentralized payment will be comparable to that of a centralized payment system and will soon surpass that of a centralized payment system. I mean, the experience is better than that of Wechat and Alipay. Under the premise of ensuring security, if the payment and transaction experience has been fundamentally improved, the block chain landing real economy will be a step closer. These are the two hard bones that the road mark has been gnawing on. We will not necessarily become Alipay in the blockchain, but zkRollup is undoubtedly the next Alipay technology.

Guo Yu: our team has an open source scientific research project zkPoD, which is a purely scientific research-oriented open source project with no commercial plan for the time being. ZkPoD attempts to combine zero knowledge proof and block chain technology to realize the two-way interaction between the value flow on the chain and the data flow under the chain. ZkPoD is currently based on ETH1.0.

At present, zkPoD mainly deals with the exchange protocol of digital information. In the traditional transaction link, a third party must be needed to complete the “payment on one hand, delivery on the other”. As early as the 1980s, it has been proved that there must be a third party. However, we know that in a distributed protocol, the number of malicious nodes cannot exceed 1P3. However, in the course of the two-party transaction, either party is a malicious node, which is exactly 50%. This is doomed that the transaction between the two parties cannot be completed in mutual trust.

We wonder if we can use the blockchain or smart contract as a third party to replace the traditional centralized third party. The blockchain or intelligent contract is open, transparent and credible. Assuming that most miners are honest and reliable, their blockchain network can achieve a third party without trust.

After more than a year of research, we put forward the zkPoD protocol and solved this problem completely. In the current zkPoD protocol, we make full use of the function of zero knowledge proof to ensure that the data source is reliable before the transaction. Secondly, in the course of the transaction, it is guaranteed that the encrypted data is encrypted by trusted encryption, and the buyer does not have to worry about adulteration of the contents in the encrypted data; at the same time, it ensures that the seller will not disclose the contents of any original data before receiving the payment in the course of the transaction, that is, to ensure perfect “zero knowledge”. In the research process of this project, we find that the existing zero-knowledge proof schemes generally do not consider the case of large data to do zero-knowledge proof. When we need to exchange more data than 1MB, the traditional proof scheme will cost a lot of money, which is far from practical.

Later, after a year of research, we found a new path to achieve zero-knowledge proof of GB-level data. We started from the simplest data processing to the realization of machine learning on the data. We hope that zkPoD can help ethernet and other public chains to break through the barriers between intelligent contracts on the chain and data processing under the chain when the block chain TPS is limited, and push the application scenarios of the block chain from finance to the broader digital world. ZkPoD is currently working on some theoretical finishes, and new developments will be released this year.

Wang Hang: judging from the progress of Etay Fang, there are no other functions after the launch of Phase 0 in July, such as VM. The main purpose of this stage is to complete the establishment of the Staking model, so please make some predictions about the development of Etay Square. In these stages of development, which characteristics do you think have become the key points of development?

Michael Yuan: from the roadmap of Ethernet Square, the goal of Phase 0 is the beacon chain, to achieve tens of thousands of verifiers, and these verifiers can reach a consensus, which is the key. If there are only 1000 verifiers in Ethernet Square, then ethernet 2.0 will have to be redesigned. Of course, there are already 20,000 people on the test chain, and this goal should be confident.

Phase 1: is running on the beacon chain sharding, has many subchains that can work properly, the key here is security and verifiability. For example, attackers cannot be allowed to predict which verifiers will participate in validating a particular block.

Phase 1.5: it should be at least a year away from today’s etheric place 1.0 to become a sub-chain of ethernet place 2.0.

Phase 2: ethernet 2.0 has a new Ewasm virtual machine, which makes a new generation of intelligent contract applications possible. The key at this stage is whether we can surpass Ethernet Square 1.0 and extend it beyond the block chain, so that it can really become a decentralized cloud computing platform.

Just like we now put the eWasm virtual machine invented by Ethernet Square on Polkadot,Oasis Lab,CyberMiles outside Ethernet Square, but what is more interesting is to put it on the cloud computing platform outside the blockchain. Maybe the blockchain technology will eventually change the world outside the blockchain.

Xia Fubiao: I think it is mainly two aspects: first, the degree of innovation and efforts to the new technology ensures the upper limit of the final state of ETH2; second, I think it is more important to attach importance to security and stability. In this process, high intensity and a large amount of testing resources ensure that the final system is really reliable, whether it is really oriented to users (whether developers or ordinary users) and easy to use.

I predict that Ethernet Fang will pass the stability test for a long time, during which some unexpected problems may arise, including hacker attacks, or even governance-level problems (such as serious enough to change the system parameters of PoS), but I believe that it will eventually enter a stable state of the system, alleviate scalability problems, and popularize and stabilize PoS patterns at the economic and governance levels.

Wang Dong: personally, I have been optimistic about Yi Tai Fong for a long time, because there are a large number of excellent developers in this ecology. But even so, I still expect it will take about five years for ETH2 to support generic smart contracts. ETaifang 2.0 is a key node in each stage, of which I think the most important one is the trend of (de) centralization after the launch of POS, and the other is the linkage and interoperability between shards-which is also a follow-up consideration for application developers. The challenges posed by the sharding architecture for subsequent hard bifurcations also need to be verified.

Guo Yu: after the launch of ETH2, there should be a relatively long stable period, and minor problems should be exposed and corrected. It’s just that I’m more optimistic about the time. Individuals pay more attention to the related research of zero knowledge proof in Etaifang community. Ethernet Fang continues to deepen the research on cryptography, and a large number of cryptography technologies are used to make up for some shortcomings in distributed computing. My experience is that the theoretical research in this part is developing rapidly, and a new idea appears almost every week. At the same time, a number of excellent teams have emerged in the Yi Tai Fang community, such as Aztec, Matter Labs, Dust Network and so on. They in turn promote the technological evolution of ethernet itself, which undoubtedly increases some variables in the development path of eth2.

But on the other hand, the engineering practice of these new technologies is just beginning, and it is difficult to predict the path of eth2. The modification of the original plan can not be ruled out after the breakthrough in theory, but the upgrade of the main network is delayed due to the unexpected difficulty of engineering. Personally, I think this is a high probability. At present, it is difficult to predict which technologies will be adopted at which stage, but this process can happen faster than expected, so I think (and would like to see) the original plan of Ethernet Square 2.0 dynamically change according to the theoretical progress.

Wang Hang: ethernet Fang has contributed to the development of cryptocurrency, from private fundraising, coin issuance, DApp to today’s DeFi. What finally comes out is the financial application. Is it possible for us to form other weak financial applications? For example, the emergence and prosperity of coin-free smart contracts, such as intelligent contract search tools?

Michael: I think the most important thing for the success of the DeFi project is to connect with French currency, and the solution to this problem does not require the successful launch of Ethernet Square 2.0. From the perspective of applications and application developers, we believe that the great value of ethernet 2.0 lies in the implementation of decentralized cloud computing. With a decentralized world computer, there are a lot of applications that follow. This requires Etay Square 2.0 to improve the performance to a level that is acceptable to everyone.

From this point of view, I think that Etay Square 2.0 is an experiment, it is taking the road that no one has ever walked. If Etay Fong can achieve a cloud computing platform, it will change the world. If not, it will not be much different from today’s DeFi.

Guo Yu: from this point of view, I think Etay Square 2.0 is an experiment. He is taking the road that no one has ever walked. If we can use Taifang as a cloud computing platform, it will change the world. If not, it will not be much different from today’s DeFi. In fact, we saw a lot of wild ideas in the craze of 2017 and 2018. I think many of these ideas are very ingenious. But the reason why these ideas are gone, looking back, is because the technology is not yet in place.

In addition to finance, smart contracts can also achieve voting, identity authentication and a series of scenarios that originally require trusted third parties, all of which are expected to use intelligent contracts to replace middlemen. However, there are still two difficult problems in intelligent contracts: the first is that the execution ability of intelligent contracts is limited, and the second is that the execution of intelligent contracts is too transparent.

However, we can see that with the step-by-step development of technology, the first problem, the limited ability of intelligent contract execution, can be solved by zkRollup in some scenarios. I remember that when we conducted an audit of loopring 2.0 at the end of 2018, we found that gas consumption was very high, and then Wang Dong told me one day that Road Printing gave up 2.0 and went straight to 3.0. This courage and technical strength also contributed to the leading position of the road printing team in the world. I feel that in another year, we can pick up all kinds of “unreliable” ideas of 2017 and see which ones are already basic technologies. The financial application of the endogenous digital assets in the chain will undoubtedly become the earliest mature application scenario. But I think there is still a lot of room for imagination based on financial payments and financial products. For example, with the main network line of Filecoin, its core technology is also expected to promote the development of distributed storage applications based on Ethernet Square.

Wang Hang: Loopring has begun to derive a variety of product layouts such as payments and wallets from an agreement. From the perspective of payment substitution, what are the scenarios of loopring bidding? How to think about users’ out-of-circle breakthroughs?

Wang Dong: there are probably two applications of road print payment (Loopring Pay). One is to provide P2P transfer function for users directly or indirectly, and the other is to provide collection services for merchants. In fact, think about Wechat Alipay to do mainly these two scenes.

We believe that the token collection service has not yet reached the flashpoint, and it is still early. Therefore, it will focus on solving the problem of slow transfer of money from the main network of Ethernet Square. Soon through the road printing wallet (Loopring Wallet), everyone will be able to do fast money transfer based on the road printing agreement, which means “seconds to” and “seconds available”, and we will support zero handling fee for a long time.

The next version of the road printing protocol will support the ability to make two-tier fast money transfers to any address, and the other party does not need to register first, so the experience is really close to perfect at that time. We are currently focusing on external incremental users rather than DeFi stock users. This is an important reason why we make road print wallets. ZkRollup is a technical solution, and Wallet is a product designed for beginners. We need to hide good technology under a good user experience. It’s like the way Apple makes products.

Wang Hang: the MPC of PlatON makes some requirements of Etay Square come true smoothly (PoC verification is more efficient and stable), but from the point of view of cost, how to understand the applicability of MPC?

Xia Fubiao: MPC is essentially a joint computing model, which solves the problem of how multiple participants can complete a computing task together without revealing their respective computing inputs. For example, the most classic example is the millionaire question first raised by Mr. Yao Qizhi, a pioneer in the field of MPC. How can the two Tuhao know who is more trench without directly revealing their respective wealth and without passing a trusted third party?

You will find that this problem seems a bit contrary to common sense, in fact, with a lot of cool techs technology in cryptography, we can not only solve the millionaire problem, but also solve more complex computational problems, such as neural network training, of course, very complex AI training, such as you want to get the network to 100 layers, MPC also has to kneel, really can not run. If you want accurate results and privacy, you must sacrifice something. The extra cost in MPC technology is usually computing and communication overhead, including extra time, extra network traffic (which is bound to increase), and additional computation (such as two sides calculating a simple multiplication, not only the network, but also the CPU of both sides have to work very hard). These are the natural costs introduced by the MPC model. Of course, for different scenarios and computing tasks, MPC technology can choose different cryptographic algorithms to combine flexibly to minimize the negative side of these costs.

On the other hand, privacy computing technologies are more or less faced with different cost problems. For example, homomorphic encryption, although the communication overhead is lower than MPC, but the computational overhead will be higher, the requirements for CPU and memory will be very high, and for example, TEE (trusted execution environment) technology, which is done through security hardware, but the cost of trust will certainly be higher. After all, unlike a decentralized system, you use TEE, to show that you trust intel SGX or other TEE technologies to be secure and reliable (not that TEE is not good. In fact, PlatON is also looking at the combination of TEE technology and itself, but at present, it is more likely to use cryptographic theory to achieve business enablement).

Finally, I am still the simple point of view, when using MPC technology, we should pay attention to the benefits of MPC while accepting the cost of MPC. Once again, take the example of PlatON’s participation in ETH2’s PoC scheme. The introduction of MPC technology can eliminate the risk of a single point of failure of a verifier (technically), while allowing multiple small verifiers to assume the responsibility of a standard verifier, lowering the threshold for ordinary players to become verifiers, which is a commercial benefit, but also makes EH2 more decentralized, which is of more far-reaching significance. By contrast, calculating the increased communication cost and time cost of a managed bit is actually less eye-catching, not to mention that we are really good at the performance level in the actual measurement phase.

Wang Yukun: what will be the development of the application of non-trading chains and coins in Ethernet Square? For example, the enterprise version of Etay Square and so on. If the application field is expanded, will the chain characterized by storage and cross-chain interoperability become a competitor of ethernet?
Michael: Enterprise Ether Fong has been around for a long time, but there is no big news. It is difficult for enterprises to start their own chain, so we have also put forward the idea of alliance public chain. The data on the chain is open and transparent, and enterprises only need to submit applications to the chain.

Ethernet Square 2.0 becomes multiple sub-chains, which on the one hand is a sharp increase in difficulty for Enterprise Ethernet Square (10,000 verifiers? Today, there are few ethernet applications with even ten nodes. On the other hand, can enterprises join the ecology in the form of subchains?

When Polkadot and Cosmos first got up, Ethernet Fong was not a competitor between them, but in recent years of exploration, Ethernet Fong has also turned itself into a multi-chain system, and the sub-chain relies on the main chain to ensure its security.

Etay Fang has explored a variety of chain expansion solutions, such as Plasma, but have not been successful, now choose sharding this road, in a sense has become their own cross-chain ecology. So now these three projects have a certain competitive relationship. But among them, the ecosystem of Yitaifang is the most perfect and the practice is the most decentralized, which is worth looking forward to.

Another possibility, of course, is that before the revolution in Etay Fong, Polkadot had already succeeded. Polkadot is now in phase 1, but ethernet is not even Phase 0 yet. We just heard that you may not be able to run a smart contract on ETH2 for five years?

Xia Fubiao: from the application level, in fact, the development of Yitaifang itself is similar to the source, without a good engine, the above applications are designed in a variety of ways, and there will not be a very good user experience. Therefore, it is certain that other applications on Ethernet Fong will gain (+ buffer), after all, your engine has been upgraded (network performance), your brakes have been upgraded (safety), and there is no reason why your driving performance will be worse, will it? As far as the enterprise edition is concerned, my view is similar to that of Dr. Yuan, which is not necessarily a good thing, because the sharding mechanism and other new basic layer designs may affect the enterprise version of ethernet and need to change a lot of architectural things.

Other chains, such as Filecoin, Cosmos, Boca and so on, are actually differentiated and competitive with ETH. Such as Filecoin, their technology community is also very powerful, and the project is cut from the perspective of storage infrastructure. If the project really achieves the set goals, it is also very competitive, and even has a greater influence in subdivision areas. After all, it is much more difficult for you to explain to ordinary users that Xunlei can make money without downtime and to explain Ethernet Square. My expectation is that there will be many competitive public chain / cross-chain projects in the future, but not too many, maybe the strong will always be strong, and everyone will do what they are good at in the field and become head players, but all of them will be done in a decentralized way.

Guo Yu: Ethernet Fang takes the lead because they started early. The etheric Fong team started in 2014, while other teams are still very young. Ethernet Fong’s innovation has actually been studied as early as 2016, so it is also in line with the general law of development. From a technical point of view, blockchain technology still needs in-depth research, the key is whether each team can find its own position, do not need to compete directly with Ethernet Square, and find a promising and influential direction.

The feeling over the past few years is that blockchain has little competition in technology because there are so many interesting things to do. This blue sea space is large enough to attract more people of insight with different backgrounds. Storage and cross-chain are not the most critical issues, and these technical points need to be in-depth before the real key problems can be found. It may be a completely new problem that has never been seen before, or it may be that a trivial problem becomes a core problem in the new environment.

Wang Dong: I have not been very optimistic about the alliance chain, and I may not understand it very well. I think the alliance chain may not be defined as a value network (not that there is no value on the alliance chain), so there is no real consensus. The “real consensus” I am talking about here refers to the consensus based on interests. If there is no interest, nothing matters. Of course, this consensus itself does not have any high value. In fact, in recent years, most of the alliance chains, large and small, are gimmicks, which have not really changed the relations of production, or even made little improvement to the improvement of productivity. The purpose of the alliance chain is nothing more than to prop up the stock price of listed companies, or to ask the government for project money, or to obtain academic capital politically and correctly. Whether we can become the killer of Etay Fong or not depends mainly on the developers in the ecology. We have seen a lot of “killers” in Tai Fong in the past two years. Now, these killers are more like Lei Gong Tai Chi and Mianyuan Tai Chi. So far, I have not seen a public chain that can shake the etheric place.